A valuable reference is the Web site for the US CDC – Center for Disease Control. In my Safari Planning / safari essentials section I have some recommendations. However, at no time should you accept my advice, or anyone else’s, other than from your own professional. Different countries have different requirements for shots needed.
Anyone traveling to Africa should know that Southern Africa has some of the finest medical facilities anywhere in the world, and they are readily available, should the need arise.
I am often asked about the risk of HIV/AIDS to safari travelers. Whilst this tragic disease is indeed endemic in Africa, you are most unlikely to come across any evidence of it at all. There are only certain ways of contracting it – and such activities are unlikely to be included in your safari itinerary! In the unlikely event of an accident, blood in Africa is extremely well screened, probably better than in the USA. Additionally, in East Africa, an excellent Flying Doctor Service is available, and Medivac systems are available in Southern Africa.
General health problems due to poor food preparation are most unlikely in the high quality places at which you will stay.
Malaria is of course present in Africa, but if proper precautions are observed, the risks have been found to be minimal. You will be surprised at how few bugs you will see at all!
For those traveling to Australia, New Zealand and South America health risks are at a bare minimum, and excellent Flying Doctor / Air Evacuation systems are available. No shots are required for India.